[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Indexing and Abstracting::
Articles archive::
For Authors::
For Reviewers::
Contact us::
Site Facilities::
Publication Ethics::
Articles in Press::
Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
:: Volume 3, Issue 2 (11-2023) ::
injoere 2023, 3(2): 1-16 Back to browse issues page
Optimizaton quality of Agar Gracilaria verrucosa Seaweed with different density in extensive polyculture system
A.R. Rahim * , D.R. Utami , S. Budi
Abstract:   (477 Views)
The polyculture system was used to increase the productivity of extensive brackishwater ponds to produce optimal agar with varying densities of three commodities: milkfish, Vannamei shrimp, and Gracilaria verrucosa. This study aims to obtain the optimal density of the three commodities in extensive brackishwater ponds with polyculture systems to produce the best agar quality for G. verrucosa. The research was conducted in the expanse of the Polyculture System Extensive brackishwater Pond in Lamongan Regency. The study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 density treatments (milkfish m-2 : Vannamei shrimp m-2 : G. verrucosa g m-2) and 3 replicates: A (10:10:250), B (20:20:500), and C (30:30:1000). Statistical analysis uses one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), while Tukey's HSD (Honestly Significant Difference) and Path Analysis use Pearson Correlation. The results showed that the best density obtained in treatment A gave a significant difference from treatments B and C in producing Specific Growth Rate, Absolute Weight, Absolute Length, Carbon Content, and quality of agar rendementing the best of seaweed G. verrucosa. From the path analysis, CNP nutrients and the growth of G. verrucosa seaweed have a strong and very strong influence to improve the quality of agar rendementing G. verrucosa seaweed.
Keywords: Agar, Extensive, Gracilaria verrucosa, Density, Polyculture
Full-Text [PDF 426 kb]   (148 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2023/05/24 | Accepted: 2023/11/1 | Published: 2023/11/1
1. Ak, I., Çetin, Z., Cirik, Ş. and Göksan, T., 2011. Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) papenfuss culture using an agricultural organic fertilizer. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 20(8A), 2156-2162.
2. Amir, M.R., 2019. Studi Kelayakan Tambak Untuk Budidaya Rumput Laut (Gracilaria sp) Di Desa Panyiwi Kecamatan Cenrana Kabupaten Bone. Jurnal Environmental Science, 1(2). [DOI:10.35580/jes.v1i2.9061]
3. Anam, M.S., 2007. Guidelines for Polyculture Cultivation of Seaweed, Milkfish and Shrimp in Ponds. Food Security and Agricultural Extension Office District of Pasuruan.
4. Anton, A., 2017. Pertumbuhan dan Kandungan Agar Rumput Laut (Gracilaria spp) Pada Beberapa Tingkat Salinitas. Jurnal Airaha, 6(2), 054-064. [DOI:10.15578/ja.v6i2.70]
5. Bird, C.J., McLachlan, J. and Oliveira, E.C. de., 1986. Gracilaria chilensis sp.nov. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), from Pacific South America. Canadian Journal of Botany, 64(12), 2928-2934. [DOI:10.1139/b86-387]
6. Briggs, M.R.P. and Funge-Smith, S.J., 1993. Macroalgae in aquaculture: an overview and their possible roles in shrimp culture. In Proceedings conference on marine biotechnology in the Asia Pacific (pp. 137-143).
7. Choi, H.G., Kim, Y.S., Kim, J.H., Lee, S.J., Park, E.J., Ryu, J. and Nam, K.W., 2006. Effects of temperature and salinity on the growth of Gracilaria verrucosa and G. chorda, with the potential for mariculture in Korea. Journal of Applied Phycology, 18(3-5), 269-277. [DOI:10.1007/s10811-006-9033-y]
8. Colman, B.P., 2010. Understanding and eliminating iron interference in colorimetric nitrate and nitrite analysis. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 165(1-4), 633-641. [DOI:10.1007/s10661-009-0974-x]
9. Dawes, C.J., Lluis, A.O. and Trono, G.C., 1994. Laboratory and field growth studies of commercial stains of Eucheuma denticulatus and Kappaphycus alvarezii in the Philippines. Applied Phycology, 6, 21-24. [DOI:10.1007/BF02185899]
10. De Castro, J.P.L., Costa, L.E.C., Pinheiro, M.P., Dos Santos Francisco, T., De Vasconcelos, P.H.M., Funari, L.M., Daudt, R.M., Dos Santos, G.R.C., Cardozo, N.S.M. and Freitas, A.L.P., 2018. Polysaccharides of red alga Gracilaria intermedia: Structure, antioxidant activity and rheological behavior. Polimeros, 28(2), 178-186. [DOI:10.1590/0104-1428.013116]
11. Dickson, A.G., Sabine, C.L. and Christian, J.R., 2007. Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements. PICES special publication. In Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 measurements. PICES Special Publication, 3, 8.
12. Diniz, G.S., Barbarino, E., Oiano-Neto, J., Pacheco, S. and Lourenço, S.O., 2013. Perfil químico bruto y cálculo de los factores de conversión de nitrógeno a proteína en nueve especies de peces de aguas costeras de Brasil. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 41(2), 254-264. [DOI:10.3856/vol41-issue2-fulltext-5]
13. Directorate General of Aquaculture, 2018. Center for Statistics and Information Data. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries.
14. Effendi, M.I., 1997. Methods of Fisheries Biology. Gramedia Main Library.
15. Erlania, E., Nirmala, K. and Soelistyowati, D.T., 2013. Penyerapan Karbon Pada Budidaya Rumput Laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dan Gracilaria gigas Di Perairan Teluk Gerupuk, Lombok Tengah, Nusa Tenggara Barat. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur, 8(2), 287. [DOI:10.15578/jra.8.2.2013.287-297]
16. Faturrahman, F., Meryandini, A., Junior, M.Z. and Rusmana, I., 2011. Isolation and identification of an agar-liquefying marine bacterium and some properties of its extracellular agarases. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 12(4), 192-197. [DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d120402]
17. Fortes, M.D., 1989. Seagrasses: A Resource Unknown in the ASEAN Region. ICLARM Education Series 5, 46 P. (Issue November).
18. Fourooghifard, H., Matinfar, A., Mortazavi, M.S., Roohani Ghadikolaee, K. and Mirbakhsh, M., 2018. Nitrogen and phosphorous budgets for integrated culture of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with red seaweed Gracilaria corticata in zero water exchange system. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 17(3), 471-486. [DOI:10.22092/IJFS.2018.116382]
19. Gioele, C., Marilena, S., Valbona, A., Nunziacarla, S., Andrea, S. and Antonio, M., 2017. Gracilaria gracilis, source of agar: A short review. Current Organic Chemistry, 21(5), 380-386. [DOI:10.2174/1385272820666161017164605]
20. Horwitz., W., George, W. and Latimer, J., 2006. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. In AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 18, 96 P.
21. Israel, A., Guttman, L., Shpige, M. and Neori, A., 2017. Development of polyculture and integrated multi -trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in Israel: A Review. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh, January. [DOI:10.46989/001c.21051]
22. Isroni, W., Bahri, A.S. and Amin, A.A., 2020. The effect of using the initial weight of seedlings by the floating method on the percentage of daily growth of seaweed eucheuma cottonii. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 441(1). [DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/441/1/012132]
23. Istiqomawati, R.K., 2010. Technique of Seaweed Culture at Brackwish Water Aquaculture Development Center Situbondo of East Java. Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan Dan Kelautan, 2(1), 44-51.
24. Jayasankar, R., Seema, C., Leelabhai, K.S. and Kanagam, A., 2006. Pond based grow out system of Gracilaria. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 21(3), 161-167.
25. Klionsky, D.J., Abdelmohsen, K., Abe, A., Abedin, M.J., Abeliovich, H., Arozena, A.A., Adachi, H., Adams, C.M., Adams, P.D., Adeli, K., Adhihetty, P.J., Adler, S.G., Agam, G., Agarwal, R., Aghi, M.K., Agnello, M., Agostinis, P., Aguilar, P.V., Aguirre-Ghiso, J., Zughaier, S.M., 2016. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy, 12(1), 1-222. [DOI:10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356]
26. Kristanto, A., Pantjara, B. and Insan, I., 2013. Polyculture of tiger prawns, Tilapia, Milkfish, and Seaweed in Idle Ponds, Tangerang Regency, Banten. Proceedings of the Aquaculture Technology Innovation Forum, 183-191.
27. Kumar, M., Kumari, P., Gupta, V., Reddy, C.R.K. and Jha, B., 2010. Biochemical responses of red alga Gracilaria corticata (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) to salinity induced oxidative stress. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 391(1-2), 27-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.jembe.2010.06.001]
28. Lapointe, B.E., 1984. Biochemical strategies for growth of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyta) in relation to light insentity and nitrogen availabity. J.Phycol, 20(1), 488-495. [DOI:10.1111/j.0022-3646.1984.00488.x]
29. Madina, St., Syafiuddin, M., Samawi, M, F., Muhiddin, A. H., Muh. Hatta, M., 2022. Water Quality of Seaweed cultivation (Eucheuma cottonii) location in old Takalar, Mappakasunggu District, Takalar Regency. Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan. Spermonde. 8(2): 28-36. [DOI:10.20956/jiks.v8i2.19770.]
30. Mapparimeng, A., Liswahyuni, A., Permatasari, A. and Fattah, N., 2019. Growth rate of seaweed (Gracilaria sp.) with tiered shelf pattern in ponds, Samataring Village, East Sinjai District, Sinjai Regency. Journal Agrominansia, 4(1), 71-82.
31. Marinho-Soriano, E., Morales, C. and Moreira, W.S.C., 2002. Cultivation of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta) in shrimp ponds effluents in Brazil. Aquaculture Research, 33, 1081-1086. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2109.2002.00781.x]
32. Martín, L.A., Rodríguez, M.C., Matulewicz, M.C., Fissore, E.N., Gerschenson, L.N. and Leonardi, P.I., 2013. Seasonal variation in agar composition and properties from Gracilaria gracilis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) of the Patagonian coast of Argentina. Phycological Research, 61(3), 163-171. [DOI:10.1111/pre.12000]
33. Martínez-Porchas, M., Martínez-Córdova, L.R., Porchas-Cornejo, M.A. and López-Elías, J.A., 2010. Shrimp polyculture: a potentially profitable, sustainable, but uncommon aquacultural practice. Reviews in Aquaculture, 2(2), 73-85. [DOI:10.1111/j.1753-5131.2010.01023.x]
34. Matinfar, M., Rafiee, F., Nejatkhah Manavi, P., Joon Lee, I. and Hong, Y.K., 2013. Optimal conditions for tissue growth and branch induction of Gracilariopsis persica. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 12(1), 24-33.
35. Moore, J.W., 1991. Inorganic contaminants of surface water research and monitoring priorities. In Springer-Verlag (p. 334). [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4612-3004-5]
36. Muarif, R. and Yala, Z.R., 2017. Growth of Eucheuma cottonii Seaweed Cultured In Vitro with Different Numbers of Thallus. In Proceedings of the IV National Symposium on Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (pp. 251-259).
37. Mulatsih, S., 2015. Model Optimasi Pengelolaan Kualitas Lingkungan melalui Peran Biofilter Rumput Laut ( Gracilaria sp.) untuk Pengembangan Tambak yang Berkelanjutan, 9(01), 84-89.
38. Mulyaningrum, S.R.H. and Suwoyo, H.S., 2018. Growth, agar yield and water quality variables affecting mass propagation of tissue cultured seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa in pond. Ilmu Kelautan: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences, 23(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.14710/ik.ijms.23.1.55-62 [DOI:10.14710/ik.ijms.23.1.55-62.]
39. Myco Supply, 2011. Myco Supply COA Certificate of Analysis. Myco Supply Company, Inc. http://www.mycosupply.com/coa
40. Nana, S.S., U.P., 2008. Manajemen kualitas tanah dan air dalam kegiatan perikanan budidaya. Balai Budidaya Air Payau, Takalar. In Dirjen Perikanan Budidaya Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan (p. 27). Dirjen Perikanan Budidaya Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan Sulawesi Selatan. 40P.
41. Niu, J., Xu, M., Wang, G., Zhang, K. and Peng, G., 2013. Comprehensive extraction of agar and R-phycoerythrin from Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 42(1), 21-28.
42. Ollando, J.A., Mwakumanya, M.A. and Mindra, B., 2019. The viability of red alga (Gracilaria salicornia ) seaweed farming for commercial extraction of agar at kibuyuni in kwale county South Coast Kenya. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 7(2), 175-180.
43. Orosco, C.A., Anong, C., Nukaya, M., Ohno, M., Sawamura, M. and Kusunose, H., 1992. Yield and physical characteristics of agar from Gracilaria chorda Holmes: Comparison with those from southeast Asian species. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 58(9), 1711-1716. [DOI:10.2331/suisan.58.1711]
44. Oyieke, H.A., 1993. The yield, physical and chemical properties of agar gel from Gracilaria species (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) of the Kenya coast. Hydrobiologia, 260-261(1), 613-620. [DOI:10.1007/BF00049079]
45. Painter, T.J., 1983. Algal polysaccharides. In: Aspinall GO (ed) The polysaccharides. Vol. II. Academic. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-065602-8.50009-1]
46. Pakker, H., Breeman, A.M., Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. and Hock, C., 1995. A Comparative study of temperature responses of caribbean seaweeds from different biogeographic groups. Journal of Phycology, 31(4), 499-507. [DOI:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1995.tb02543.x]
47. Pantjara, B. and M. Mangampa., R., 2010. Cultivation of tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, in acid sulphate ponds in Tarakan, East Kalimantan. J.Perikanan, 12(1), 1-10.
48. Pong-masak, P., Asaad, A.I., Hasnawi, H., Pirzan, A. and Lanuru, M., 2010. Analisis Kesesuaian Lahan Untuk Pengembangan Budidaya Rumput Laut Di Gusung Batua , Pulau Badi. Ris. Akuakultur, 5(2), 299-316. [DOI:10.15578/jra.5.2.2010.299-316]
49. Rahim, A.R., Herawati, E.Y., Nursyam, H. and Hariati, A.M., 2016. Combination of vermicompost fertilizer, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on cell characteristics, growth and quality of agar Seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 15(4), 1153-1160.
50. Rahim, A.R., 2017. The Content of agar seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa fertilized with vermicompost. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 2(4), 1879-1884. [DOI:10.22161/ijeab/2.4.51]
51. Rahim, A.R., 2018a. Application of seaweed gracilaria verrucosa tissue culture using different doses of vermicompost fertilizer. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 17(2). [DOI:10.22161/ijeab/2.4.51]
52. Rahim, A.R., 2018b. Utilization of organic wastes for vermicomposting using lumbricus rubellus in increasing quality and quantity of seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 20(2).
53. Rahim, A.R., Rosmarlinasiah and Ruhumuddin, S., 2021. Productivity improvement of seaweed (Gracilaria verrucosa) fertilized with vermicompost made from different organic waste. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 41(6), 613-620. https://www.e-ijep.co.in/41-6-613-620/
54. Raikar, S.V., Iima, M. and Fujita, Y., 2001. Effect of temperature, salinity and light intensity on the growth of Gracilaria spp. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Japan, Malaysia and India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 30(2), 98-104.
55. Rosyida, E., Surawidjaja, E.H., Suseno, S.H. and Supriyono, E., 2014. Teknologi Pengkayaan Unsur-Unsur N, P, Fe Pada Rumput Laut Gracilaria verrucosa. Journal Kelautan Nasional, 8(3), 127. [DOI:10.15578/jkn.v8i3.6232]
56. Samidjan, I., Rachmawati, D., Indarji, A. and Hadi, P., 2018. Rekayasa Teknologi Polikultur Udang Vanamei dan Rumput Laut Pada Jarak Tanam Berbeda Terhadap Percepatan Pertumbuhan dan Kelulushidupan. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kelautan Dan Perikanan IV 2018, 1(September), 249-255.
57. Sarkar, S., Rekha, P.N., Biswas, G., Ghoshal, T.K., Ambasankar, K. and Balasubramanian, C.P., 2019. Culture Potential of the Seaweed, Gracilaria tenuistipitata (Rhodophyta) in Brackishwater Tide Fed Pond System of Sundarban, India. Journal of Coastal Research, 86(sp1), 258-262. [DOI:10.2112/SI86-038.1]
58. Sornalakshm, V., 2017. Effects of Season on the Yield and Properties of Agar from Gracilaria coticata. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Management (IJSEM), 2(12), 206-211.
59. Stewart, H.L. and Carpenter, R.C., 2003. The effecs of morphology and water flow on photosynthesis of marine macroalgae. Ecology, 84(11), 2,999-3,012. [DOI:10.1890/02-0092]
60. Stiger-Pouvreau, V., Bourgougnon, N. and Deslandes, E., 2016. Carbohydrates from seaweeds (pp. 223-274). In: Fleurence J, Levine I (eds) Health and disease prevention. Academic. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-802772-1.00008-7]
61. Sugiyono, 2010. Metode penelitian kuantitatif kualitatif. Bandung Alf (p. 143).
62. Susilowati, T., Rejeki, S., Zulfitrian, Z. and Dewi., E.N., 2012. Effect of Depth on Growth Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) Cultivated Using the Longline Method at Mlonggo Beach, Jepara Regency. Jurnal Saintek Perikanan, 8(1), 7-12.
63. Syam, A.P. and Suardi, M.S., 2020. Analisis pertumbuhan dan kandungan agar rumput laut Gracilaria sp. Dengan lokasi berbeda di perairan pesisir kabupaten luwu. Fisheries of Wallacea Journal, 1(1), 24-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.55113/fwj.v1i1.318.
64. Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S.C., Feely, R.A. and Wanninkhof, R., 2006. Decadal change of the surface water pCO2 in the North Pacific: A synthesis of 35 years of observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 111(7). [DOI:10.1029/2005JC003074]
65. Tarigan, M. and Edward, 2003. Kandungan Total Zat Padat Tersuspensi (Total suspenden Solid) Di Perairan Raha, Sulawesi Tenggara. Makara, 7(3), 109-119. https://doi/org/10.7454/mss.v7i3.362 [DOI:10.7454/mss.v7i3.362]
66. Tsai, C.C., Chang, J.S., Sheu, F., Shyu, Y.T., Yu, A.Y.C., Wong, S.L., Dai, C.F. and Lee, T.M., 2005. Seasonal growth dynamics of Laurencia papillosa and Gracilaria coronopifolia from a highly eutrophic reef in southern Taiwan: Temperature limitation and nutrient availability. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 315(1), 49-69. [DOI:10.1016/j.jembe.2004.08.025]
67. Waluyo, W., Permadi, A., Fanni, N.A. and Soedrijanto, A., 2019. Analisis Kualitas Rumput Laut Gracilaria Verrucosa di Tambak Kabupaten Karawang, Jawa Barat. Grouper, 10(1), 32. [DOI:10.30736/grouper.v10i1.50]
68. Wenno, M.R., Thenu, J.L. and Cristina Lopulalan, C.G., 2012. Karakteristik Kappa Karaginan dari Kappaphycus alvarezii Pada Berbagai Umur Panen. Jurnal Pascapanen Dan Bioteknologi Kelautan Dan Perikanan, 7(1), 61. [DOI:10.15578/jpbkp.v7i1.69]
69. Xu, Y., Fang, J. and Wei, W., 2008. Application of Gracilaria lichenoides (Rhodophyta) for alleviating excess nutrients in aquaculture. Journal of Applied Phycology, 20(2), 199-203. [DOI:10.1007/s10811-007-9219-y]
70. Yang, Y., Chai, Z., Wang, Q., Chen, W., He, Z. and Jiang, S., 2015. Cultivation of seaweed Gracilaria in Chinese coastal waters and its contribution to environmental improvements. Algal Research, 9, 236-244. [DOI:10.1016/j.algal.2015.03.017]
71. Yulistiana, U., Damayanti, A.A. and Cokrowati, N., 2020. Pertumbuhan Gracilaria sp. yang Dibudidayakan Pada Tambak di Bajo Baru Dompu. Rekayasa, 13(3), 212-218. https://doi.org/10.21107/rekayasa.v13i3.9013 [DOI:10.21107/rekayasa.v13i3.9013.]
72. Yulius, Ramdhan, M., Prihantono, J., Pryambodo, D. G., Saepuloh, D., Salim, H. L., Rizaki, I., & Zahara, I. R. 2019. Budidaya rumput laut dan pengelolaannya di pesisir Kabupaten Dompu, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat berdasarkan analisa kesesuaian lahan dan daya dukung lingkungan. Segara, 15(1), 19-30. [DOI:10.15578/segara.v15i1.7429]
73. Yuniarsih, E., Nirmala, K. and Radiarta, I.N., 2014. Tingkat penyerapan nitrogen dan fosfor pada budidaya rumput laut berbasis imta (Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture) di teluk gerupuk, lombok tengah, nusa tenggara barat. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur, 9(3), 487. https://doi.org/10.15578/jra.9.3.2014.487-500 [DOI:10.15578/jra.9.3.2014.487-500.]
74. Zhou, W., Hu, Y., Sui, Z., Fu, F., Wang, J., Chang, L., Guo, W. and Li, B., 2013. Genome survey sequencing and genetic background characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) based on next-generation sequencing. PLoS ONE, 8(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069909 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069909.]
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rahim A, Utami D, Budi S. Optimizaton quality of Agar Gracilaria verrucosa Seaweed with different density in extensive polyculture system. injoere 2023; 3 (2) :1-16
URL: http://injoere.com/article-1-67-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons LicenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons attributions (CC-BY).
Volume 3, Issue 2 (11-2023) Back to browse issues page
International Journal of Aquatic Research and Environmental Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 36 queries by YEKTAWEB 4624